Elahe Noori Gholamizadeh, referring to the recent political developments in Peru, told the Strategic Council on Foreign Relations that this country was considered one of the leading countries of the Washington Consensus policies, and during the “Fujimori” period, in addition to the developments that took place with neoliberal policies and privatization in the region, it experienced developments such as the dissolution of Congress. During that period, with the developments in Peru, Fujimori finally fled to Japan. In the new period, “Pedro Castillo” came to office as a leftist from among the rural and low-income classes. He ran against candidates who were among the thinkers of the Washington Consensus in the region.
She added that it is natural that Castillo did not have a strong position in the competition with these people and in the political circles of a country that mainly had right-wing and neoliberal policies, and only his popular and socialist origin and position pushed him forward. From the very beginning of his inauguration, there were frequent attacks against him in political circles, and there were many talks of opposing the government’s plans and his impeachment.
The assistant professor of the American Studies Department of Tehran University’s Faculty of World Studies said that Castillo, facing this prevailing atmosphere in Peru’s political structure, ordered the dissolution of the Congress and a decision to be made again. This issue was a reminder of Fujimori’s actions for the people and political circles. His supporters believed that with the dissolution of the Congress, the country will go towards a dictatorship. In fact, he was not popular among Fujimori’s supporters, and with this action, he lost his support among Fujimori’s opponents as well.
Noori continued by stating that the media claimed that Castillo had staged a coup against him, adding that in fact, the political climate of the country put him in a situation to make decisions that would lead to such political conflicts. Peru’s Congress removed Pedro Castillo from his post last December. Castillo was arrested after ordering the dissolution of Congress and the formation of an extraordinary national cabinet, and finally fled to Mexico. With the inauguration of “Dina Boluarte “, who was previously the Prime Minister of the “Castillo” government, we are witnessing the continuation of unrest in this country.
Emphasizing that the people still wanted the presence of their president and the political circles created these conditions for “Castillo”, she added that “this situation has caused chaos and conflict in Peru and the demonstrators want the resignation of Boluarte and the holding of new elections.” Of course, a number of ministers have also resigned, stating that the countdown to the end of the Boluarte government has begun. Therefore, it seems that in the current situation of Peru, the politicians do not allow the socialist character to come to power.
This analyst of American affairs pointed to Boluarte’s opposition to the proposed amendments to the constitution, and note that “although Boluarte apologized for the deaths in the demonstrations against his government, she did not accept any of the demands of the protesters, such as resignation or the formation of the Constituent Assembly. Peru has now become a symbol of the conflict between rightism and leftism in the Latin American region, and this conflict is showing itself strongly. Latin America, both in its colonial past and now under the exploitation of the United States, has always suffered from the policies of the West. What is happening in Peru seems to be tied to the fate of the new wave of leftism that has re-emerged in the region.
Noori explained that the leftists of the past period, who performed very well in terms of political measures, were welcomed by the Latin American community and the international community. They played a role at a time when raw materials had a good market, but now the wave of leftism in the region is going through different conditions, global developments have affected it, and in fact, the economic issues and the consequences of Covid-19, unemployment and the increasing poverty arising from it led countries towards leftists. Although part of the success of the new wave is tied to internal developments, an important part of it is linked to the developments of the international community.
Referring to topics such as the confrontation between the East and the West, the consequences of the Ukraine war, unemployment, energy crisis, inflation as concerns of the international community and its impact on the Latin American society, which has experienced poverty and unemployment for decades, this professor added that “Peru under the current situation on one hand is the source of neoliberal policies and what the West is looking for in Latin America, and on the other hand, the leftism that believes in Latin America for Latin America is also looking for its ideals. It is for this reason that in the current situation, the developments in Peru have been given much attention.
“Global equations have become very complicated. Until now, political ideologies determined the approaches of policy makers, but after Covid-19, due to economic issues, policy makers are facing more complicated conditions to maintain their popular position. Now, the western government of Peru, which last month declared a state of emergency for 30 days due to the continuation of violent protests in response to the removal of Pedro Castillo from the presidency, has again declared a state of emergency for another 30 days in the city of Lima, the capital of this country and three other regions. It has to be seen whether or not the policy makers of Peru will give in to the request of a part of the society that wants to hold re-elections”.
Explaining the consequences of foreign interventions in Peru’s developments, he also said that the Latin American region has gone to the left and “Pedro Castillo” has also taken refuge in the anti-Western government of Mexico. At the same time, America is heavily maneuvering the developments in Peru in terms of media and is trying to give direction to the protests. Foreign interventions and confrontation between the West and the East have been very influential in the course of developments in Peru.